Annotated Bibliography

Antivenom activity

a.     This study demonstrated that a methanol extract of A. paniculata effectively neutralized D. russelli venom induced lethal activity of 2LD50.

b.     An in vivo study of mice given a lethal dose of Naja naja found that treatment with an ethanolic extract of A. paniculata significantly increased mean survival time and protection fold but did not protect mice from death when used alone. The extract increased the potency of anti-snake venom when used in combination.


Anti-microbial activity

a.     This study examined an aqueous and two ethanolic extracts for direct antimicrobial activity against 9 bacterial species. The ethanolic extracts were observed to inhibit Legionella pneumophila and Bordetella pertussis.

b.     This study examined an ethanol extract of the aerial parts of A. paniculata for direct antimicrobial activity against eleven bacterial strains with results showing inhibition of growth of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria at varying concentrations.


Anti-inflammatory/anti-allergic activity

a.     This study found that andrographolide inhibits PAF-induced human blood platelet aggregation in a dose dependent manner indicating a mechanism of action different from that of NSAID and most likely associated with cardiovascular and antithrombotic activity.


Anti-oxidant activity

a.     This study on Wistar male albino rats found that a hydroalcoholic extract of A. paniculata prevented isoproterenol induced increase in lipid peroxidation, increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes and increased the levels of reduced glutathione in hearts. The extract also was found to prevent the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase from the heart and salvaged the heart from isoproterenol induced myocardial ischemic injury.


Immunostimulant activity

a.     A phase I dose-escalating clinical trial of andrographolide was conducted in 13 HIV positive patients and 5 HIV uninfected, healthy volunteers. A significant (P=0.002) rise in the mean CD4+ lymphocyte level of HIV subjects occurred after administration of 10 mg/kg. There were no significant changes in mean plasma HIV-1 RNA levels throughout the trial.;2-D


Cytotoxicity (anti-cancer)

a.     This article studied the invitro anticancer properties of A. paniculata leaves against neuroblastima (IMR-32) and human colon (HT-29) cancer cell line with a significant difference (P<0.01) for ethanol extract and acetone extract.

b.     This study evaluated the anticancer and immunomodulatory activity of the methanolic extract of A. paniculata in human cancer and immune cells showing significant inhibition of the proliferation of HT-29 (colon cancer) cells and augmentation of proliferation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

c.     This study analyzed 14 isolated compounds from A. paniculata for cytotoxic activities against a wide range of cancer cells with results indicating effective activity and possible mechanism.


Antidiabetic activity

a.     A. panticulata or its active compound andrographolide showed hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in high-fat-fructose-fed rats, a model of type 2 DM rat. The study found significantly (P<0.05) decreased levels of blood glucose, triglyceride, and LDL compared to controls, a similar effect to Metformin.

b.     In a study using a non-genetic out-bred Sprague-Dawley rat model to test antidiabetic activity of A. paniculata against Type 2 diabetes mellitus, treatment of leaf water extract was found to be quite effective in restoring the disturbed metabolic profile of obese-diabetic rats back towards normal conditions.

c.     The hot water and ethanol extracts of A. paniculata exhibited a significant hypoglycemic activity in both glucose-loaded and alloxan-induced diabetic rats.


Anti-protozoan (malaria) activity

a.     A broad study looking at folk medicine practices for treatments for malaria from the Acanthaceae and Asteraceae plant families.

b.     With an IC50 of 7.2 mg/ml, A. paniculata was found to have anti-malarial activity that inhibited the ring stage of P. falciparumand did not show any in vivo toxicity in Balb/c mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. The anti-malarial activity was found to be additive with Hedyotis corymbosa and syngeristic with curcumin.

c.     1,2-dihydroxy-6,8-dimethoxy-xanthone isolated from the roots were found to possess substantial anti-plasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum with an IC50 of 4mg/ml. In vivo anti-malarial sensitivity test on Swiss Albino mice with Plasmodium berghei infection using Peters’ 4-day test gave substantial reduction (62%) in parasitaemia.


Insecticidal activity

a.     Proposed mechanism for A. paniculata as a mosquito vector control.

b.     Mosquito adulticidal and repellent activities against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi. The methanol extract of A. paniculata has been shown to be active against malarial vector, Anopheles subpictus with LC50 value of 130.19 ppm.

c.     The acetone extract of A. paniculata showed good oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal and repellent activities against malaria vector mosquito Anopheles subpictus.

d.     Use of A. paniculata as a botanical pesticide against rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae, significantly reduced adult populations and weight loss of grain.


Anti-infective activity

a.     Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials for A. paniculata treatment of uncomplicated acute upper respiratory tract infection included a total of 433 patients showed that it may be more effective than placebo and considered an appropriate alternative treatment.


Anti-angiogenic activity

b.     A formulation including A. paniculata with two other plants was shown to effectively reverse symptoms in sheep with liver disease induced with paracetamol.


Hepato-renal protective activity

a.     This study tested isolated andrographolide and arabinogalactan proteins for protective activity against ethanol-induced toxicity and found effects comparable to silymarin, a standard hepatoprotective agent.



a.     This study examined the anti-secretory (anti-diarrhoeal) activity of A. paniculata against E. coli induced secretory responses in rabbit and guines-pig ileal loop models. The alcohol extracts (300 mg) inhibited fluid accumulation induced by LT, ST, and LT/ST toxins by 82.2, 71.8, and 80.8% respectively.


Review Articles

a.     This 2014 article reviewed the phytochemisty and pharmacology or A. paniculata for disease treatments and medicinal properties.

b.     This 2016 article did a review of phytopharmacological activities of A. paniculata including detailed classification, nomenclature, morphology, microscopic structure, and propagation in addition to the pharmacological studies.


Other Resources

a.     HPLC-PDA determination of bioactive diterpenoids from plant materials and commercial products of A. paniculata.

b.     This study investigated the determination and variation of 3 active diterpenoids from several products found in Thai markets. The stability for storage of dry herbs at room temperature showed that andrographolide was more stable than the other diterpenoids tested.

c.     This website provided good information on the morphological characteristics and agricultural production of A. paniculata, including propagation and harvesting.