a.     This study is a programmed clinical trial using 70% hydro-ethanolic extract in 500 mg capsules twice daily with 33 generalized anxiety disorder participants. The participants were followed up at day 30 and day 60 with significant results showing attenuated anxiety related disorders and reduced stress phenomenon and its correlated depression.

b.     A double-blind, placebo-controlled study on 40 healthy adults administered either a 12 g dose of Gotu kola or placebo. The results showed that compared with placebo, Gotu kola significantly attenuated the peak acoustic startle response amplitude 30 and 60 minutes after treatment.


Neurological systems improvement

 a.     This study investigated the unique therapeutic mechanism of action treating Tg2576 mice, a murine model of Alzheimer’s disease with high b-amyloid burden, with a water extract. The details of the mechanism are described and the extract was found to prevent intracellular b-amyloid aggregate formation in MC65 cells.

b.     This study investigated whether Gotu kola extract (2.5 or 5.0 mg/day) can alter the amyloid pathology in PSAPP mice (Alzheimer’s disease animal model). The data indicate that Gotu kola can impact the amyloid cascade altering amyloid beta pathology and modulating components of the oxidative stress response that has been implicated in the neurodegenerative changes that occur with Alzheimer’s disease.



 a.     This study demonstrates the protective efficacy against neurotoxicants in animal models of Gotu kola using 3-NPA, a well-known neurotoxicant with similar pathology to Huntington’s disease in mice. The results suggest that short-term oral intake of a standardized aqueous extract confers marked resistance against 3-NPA-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions in the brain.

b.     The goal of this study was to identify biochemical pathways altered by Gotu kola using in vitro models of amyloid-b toxicity. The data suggest an effect on mitochondrial biogenesis, which in conjunction with activation of antioxidant response genes and normalizing calcium homeostasis, likely contributes to its neuroprotective action against amyloid-b toxicity.

c.     This article is an update for recent research in the neuroprotective and neuroregenerative potential of Gotu kola. There are many useful references for in vitro and in vivo studies focused on the neurological systems including mechanisms and compounds.


Cognitive function

a.     This study is a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study investigating the effect of Gotu kola (250, 500, and 750 mg daily dose for 2 months) on cognitive function of 28 healthy elderly volunteers. The findings suggest the potential of Gotu kola to attenuate age-related decline in cognitive function and mood disorder in healthy elderly.

b.     The goal of this study was to determine the effects of a water extract of the Gotu kola on cognitive ability as well as mitochondrial and antioxidant response pathways in C57BL/6 mice. The data indicate a cognitive enhancing effect in healthy mice as well as a gene expression change suggesting a possible effect on mitochondrial biogenesis, which in conjunction of antioxidant response genes could contribute to cognitive improvement.

c.     The result of a double blind trial of Gotu kola indicated that there was a significant increase in the general mental ability of mentally retarded children after 3 months and 6 months of drug administration. Significant behavioral improvement was also found in overall general adjustment and attention & concentration after 6 months.


Physical performance

a.     A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was performed on 80 healthy elderly volunteers at doses of 250, 500, and 750 mg once daily for 90 days. The results showed that after 2 months of treatment (500 and 750 mg/day), lower extremity strength increased and the physical function subscale improved in life satisfaction.


Microangiopathy (small blood vessel)

a.     The goal of this prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized trial study was to demonstrate whether total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica was effective in improving the microcirculation in venous hypertension and microangiopathy. A decrease in flux at rest and rate of ankle swelling were observed in the treatment group (60 mg tablets twice daily over 8 weeks) and considered clinically important at 8 weeks with no observed side effects. In conclusion, venous microangiopathy was improved by treatment.

b.     The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of gotu kola in improving cognitive function in 48 patients (17 treated with 1000 mg/day, 17 treated with 750 mg/day, and 14 treated with 3 mg/day of folic acid(active control) for 6 weeks) with vascular cognitive impairment post-stroke. Results indicate that gotu kola is as effective as folic acid in improving post-stroke vascular cognitive impairment and was shown to be more effective than folic acid in improving memory domain.

a.     This prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized study of the effect of total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatic (60 mg tablets twice daily for 12 months) in improving the microcirculation in diabetic microangiopathy and neuropathy. No reported side effects. The decrease in capillary filtration and edema was associated with symptomatic improvement and the effects of treatment on flux, RAS, and edema are important in early stages of microangiopathy to avoid progression to clinical stages.


Wound contraction

a.     Several Carbopol 934 gel formulations containing different concentrations of extract were studied on experimentally induced open wounds in albino rats for wound contraction. The treated wounds showed a faster rate of wound contraction compared with controls and the rate increase was correlated with increases in herbal extract concentration.


Pharmacological Reviews

a.     This *Pharmacological Review* provides comprehensive information on pharmacology, mechanisms of action, various preclinical and clinical studies, safety precautions and current (published in 2010) research prospective of Gotu kola.

b.     This is a review of the medicinal uses of Gotu kola with emphasis on the pharmacological actions. Published in 2002.


Other Resources

a.     This website discusses the history and folklore of Gotu kola. This can be a helpful way to associate medicinal uses in a more memorable way.

b.     This article discusses the genetics of Gotu kola by examining its genome. Validation and cross-transferability in Apiaceae family for plant omics research and development is also discussed.

c.     This website provided detailed classification and alternate names in the context of Gotu kola as an invasive species threat. It thereby provides excellent data on taxonomic and global distribution as well as good identifying regional photos.

d.     Book: Herbal Constituents: Foundations of Phytochemistry by Lisa Ganora, 2009