a.     A double-blind randomized controlled trial with oxazepam in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder with 36 out-patients. The results suggested that Passiflora incarnata is an effective drug for the management of generalized anxiety disorder and had a lower incidence of impairment of job performance compared to oxazepam. 

b.     A randomized, single-blind study with 63 patients needing periodontal treatment found a significant reduction in anxiety following administration of passionflower extract while there was not significant reduction in anxiety in the control or no intervention groups. 

c.     A randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study with 60 spinal anesthesia patients treated with preoperative oral administration of P. incarnata significantly suppressed the increase in anxiety before spinal anesthesia without changing psychomotor function test results, sedation level, or hemodynamics.

d.     A double-blind, placebo-controlled study with 60 preoperative, ambulatory surgery patients given P incarnata treatment for anxiety found significantly lower an anxiety without inducing sedation than the control group. 



a.     A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of Passiflora incarnata on subjective sleep quality found that the consumption of a low dose in the form of tea yields short-term subjective sleep benefits for healthy adults with mild fluctuations in sleep quality. 



a.     A double-blind randomized controlled trial of Passiflora incarnata for treatment of opiate withdrawal symptoms found it to be equally effective as clonidine and elicited significantly superior results when used with clonidine over either alone in management of mental symptoms. These results suggest the use of passiflora extract as an effective adjuvant agent.

b.     A study in mice for nicotine withdrawal found that treatment with 20 mg/kg dose of benzoflavone moiety extracted from the aerial parts of Passiflora incarnata prevented some of the withdrawal effects and may have value in treating nicotine addiction.

c.     A study in rats for the treatment of nicotine locomotor activity associated with nicotine dependence found that after 4 days of sensitization, treatment with 800 mg/kg of Passiflora incarnata exhibited a level of locomotor activity the same as the vehicle-treated controls while those without passiflora treatment exhibited a two fold over activity. This indicates the potential use of passiflora extract for treatment of nicotine addiction in humans.



a.     A study in mice of P. edulis aqueous extract showed pronounced anti-inflammatory properties, inhibiting cell migration, proinflammatory cytokines, enzymes and mediators. 



a.     A study in mice of the anticonvulsant effects of aerial parts of P. incarnata extract found that the extract could be useful for treatment absence seizure and that these effects may be related to effects on GABAergic and opioid systems.



a.     Wildlife of Hawaii website with a description of appearance, classification, and growth for Passiflora edulis.

b.     Article on taxonomic naming of Passiflora edulis and its difficulty.

c.     Macromorphological and micromorphological studies of Passiflora species.



a.     Dr. Michael Traub’s overview of the research and clinical indications of passionflower. Used to reference dosages, safety, and history.

b.     Passiflora: a review update; used to identify the primary active constituents for both P. incarnata and P. edulis 

c.     Pharmacological review of P. edulis

d.     Pharmacological review of P. incarnata